Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Measures Required to Reduce Female Feticide - By Dr. Sabu George

The structures necessary for the implementation of the 1994 law have to be created at the district level. Volunteers have to be actively mobilized to monitor the registration and the functioning  of the sex-determination clinics in different districts. Effective alliances with ethical Doctors have to be made from the local levels. Test cases have to be filed against the violators. And also important is that we have to preserve with the media to highlight obstacles in the implementation of the Act. The consciousness of our society has to be raised against this crime. Simultaneously we have to get involved in actions to ensure that the public at large becomes supportive of this campaign. Lobbying with political parties to put this issue on their agenda is imperative. All this is just one step towards efforts to empower women in our society.

The deterioration of women’s status and the emergence of female feticide is not a unique sociological phenomenon confined to a particular state. The trend is all over the country; even in diverse cultural contexts where there has been relative greater gender equality; such as in the Uttarkhand hills or the Kashmir valley. Our challenge today is to initiate a vibrant, effective campaign against female feticide. If we are all committed then only can we reach out to the hearts and minds of our people. Jammu & Kashmir is important as it is the only state in the country where there is no legal prohibition against sex determination testing.  The earlier campaigns in the country against sex selective abortions failed despite the moral correctness of the issue, as they could not create a sustained social movement against this heinous crime. To stem the increasing epidemic of female feticide we have to expose the collusion of unethical medical practitioners with the patriarchal society. The campaign has to oppose the commodification of women in popular culture and media. Organizations and individuals with different priorities and ideological beliefs have to rally together to battle the powerful patriarchal forces operating within the institutions of the family, government and civil society. A transformation of our gendered society, is necessary for the elimination of female feticide.

Significance of the Law On Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques - By Dr. Sabu George

Recent history of social legislation in India are hardly encouraging as far as their implementation is concerned.  However the national law against prenatal diagnostics is a positive step. For fifteen years (1979-1994), when private sex determination clinics were first established and the practice of female feticide flourished in north-western India, the people had received no message questioning the morality of this practice.  The enactment of the law enabled the National Human Rights Commission to direct the Medical Council of India to take action against Doctors found abusing prenatal diagnostic techniques. Today, blatant advertisements for fetal sex determination once seen in Bombay trains in the early eighties and in Delhi newspapers in the late eighties and nineties have virtually disappeared. Thanks to laws.

The first state law enacted in Maharashtra against sex determination was the Maharashtra Regulation of Use of Prenatal  Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1988. This was the result of vigorous public campaigning in the state. After this law was effected, the number of SD clinics in Mumbai went down and the practice of  SD also lessened. This achievement was all due to sustained campaigning and active monitoring of the Act by the FASDSP [ Forum against sex determination and Sex  Pre- selection].  Unfortunately this campaign faltered when the FASDSP became non functional and quite a few of the Mumbai  sex determination clinics resumed operation. However this campaign proved that a lot can be accomplished  by sustained efforts and eradicating complacency in the state governments. All future campaigns have to learn from the shortcomings of the abortive Maharshtra campaign.  State Governments should realize the importance and priority of the present law and not merely treat it with their usual complacency.  Tamilnadu is one such state that has yet to take effective and prompt action in the implementation of this Act. 

The inadequacies of the present law are largely because the Government of India has not been seriously committed to achieving the intent of this Act – The elimination of Sex Determination Testing.  Also, due to effective lobbying of Doctors in the early nineties, several positive features of the Maharashtra Act 1988 were watered down in the 1994 National Act.   A recent administrative directive from the Family Welfare Ministry excluded a sex determination technique like Erikson's from the purview of the 1944 Act asserting that it applied only to tests conducted on pregnant women. The immediate reaction to this directive was the resumption of newspaper advertisements in North west India again promoting this sophisticated reproductive technology.  These very Advertisements had been stopped only a year before when a petition challenging the illegality of these advertisements was filed with the Punjab Human Rights Commission by ‘ Women Against Violence’.  The unwillingness of the Government to interpret the legislation to keep it in tune with the inexorable progress in technology is self defeating.

The Failure of Activists - By Dr. Sabu George

Most NGOs and the medical profession concerned with female feticide for the past two decades, failed to recognize the likelihood of its rapid spread. The first private clinic was set up in Amritsar in 1979. This trend soon spread to other cities in North and Western India, resulting in adversely influencing the sex ratio in those parts of the country. A ten year gap ensued before the proliferation of these clinics began in Southern India. In the early eighties attention was being given to the issue of female infanticide but the activists had not anticipated the problem of female feticide. Although the spread of this problem was initially slower, many taluks even in backward parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh now have sex determination clinics. There were occasional media reports from 1992 onwards about the abuse of ultrasound for fetal sex determination in major cities of Tamilnadu. Despite expression of concerns from the mid nineties about the prevalence of female feticide in rural areas, NGOs and others involved in work against infanticide did not prioritize action against feticide. Even elementary steps were not taken; for instance there was no lobbying with the state to set up the mechanisms to register sex determination clinics as mandated by the 1994 national law;  and there also was a failure to confront the medical profession’s insensitivity to the gross violation of medical ethics.

Intensification of Son Preference Related to Fertility Decline

Fertility decline has taken place in all economic and social groups in most parts of the country, especially in Tamilnadu.  The sharp fall in birth rates from the eighties is one contributory factor for intensification of son preference. Similar developments have been earlier observed in other patriarchal societies such as China, South Korea, Taiwan etc., with the decline in fertility rates. Sex determination methods were being used from 1979 onwards in North India to manipulate sex composition of children to have greater proportion of sons.  In 10 years, the sex ratio of pre-school children in Punjab dropped from the already low levels [925 to 874 during 1981-1991].  Sharp declines also occurred in Haryana and Rajasthan, states where female feticide is widespread. In less than a year the 2001 census will reveal the present situation in Punjab and other states. The indication we have from the grassroots level is that there will undoubtedly be an even steeper fall against girls. There are more than one thousand ultrasound clinics in Punjab. And elaborate networks from the village level to the nearest urban ultrasound clinics for referrals exist, where each link gets a commission from the clinics.

In Tamilnadu, the hospital birth data in recent years, reveals an increased masculination  in sex ratio at birth [109 boys per 100 boys as opposed to the expected 105].  This is essentially an urban sample. The 2001 census may not see any significant improvement in the sex ratio of surviving children in Tamilnadu.  However, we will have no definitive information on whether there is a decline in infanticide due to replacement by female feticide. But one thing is quite certain, the establishment of sex determination clinics is the early warning sign for the impending drop in sex ratios. It takes a decade for the practice to spread and gain widespread social acceptability. And, if a significant number of families in the new millennia start opting  for one or more sons with none or fewer daughters, there will be an alarming drop in sex ratios.  Our challenge is to reduce the anti-girl attitude of our society before fertility becomes less than two  [given current fertility levels, women will have an average of nearly 2 children during the child bearing years]. 

Recognizing Violence Against Women - By Dr. Sabu George

Violence against women exists in various forms in all societies the world over. However, the recognition that elimination of gender- based violence is central to equality, development and peace, is recent. In India the landmark report on the ‘Status of Women-1975’ did not deal with this issue. Then in the late seventies and eighties, the Indian women’s movement focused on issues of dowry deaths, female feticide, sati, rape and other forms of violence. More recently, international conferences such as the Vienna-1993, Cairo-1994, Copenhagen 1995 and Beijing-1995 explicitly highlighted this problem. The World Health Assembly in 1996 endorsed that violence against women is a public health problem. In 1998, the 50th anniversary of the ‘Declaration of human rights’ was celebrated by the UN with a global campaign for elimination of gender based violence. The objective was to influence public opinion and attitudes, policies, practices and legislation to facilitate a violence-free life for women.

Female feticide is one extreme manifestation of violence against women. Female fetuses are selectively aborted after pre natal sex determination, thus avoiding the birth of girls.  In India where female infanticide has existed for centuries, now female feticide has joined the fray and is increasing each day. The reasons for this evil are the introduction and proliferation of pre natal diagnostic test / sex determination clinics and cheaper ultrasound machines that help determine the sex of a child before it is born. Dramatic reduction of birth rates in most of India’s states which contributed toward intensification of son preference in the existing patriarchal society. And one must also not forget the lack of ethics in pockets of the medical profession that result in furthering female feticide.  For instance, in Tamilnadu the establishment of numerous ultrasound clinics in semi-urban areas since the mid-nineties is not a widely known fact. Even rural families in the state have begun to commit female feticide to satisfy their preference for sons.  In Haryana residents of upper caste hamlets openly admit to the widespread practice of female feticide. Parents tend to be calculative in choosing the sex of the next child and the decision is based on the birth order, sex sequence of previous children and number of sons. Transfer of reproductive technology to India is resulting in reinforcement of patriarchal values as professional medical organizations seem to be indifferent to ethical misconduct.  These facts have to be publicized so that awareness can be raised and appropriate action by the state and civil society be initiated.

Some of the facts and figures,which give more insights into this issue, are represented graphically.

Has the law helped?(SATYAMEV JAYATE)

Implementing the Act on the ground was another matter, however, and sex determination and female foeticide continued, practically unchecked. Following more protests and a public interest litigation by activists’ groups, the Supreme Court issued a directive in 2001 calling upon all state governments to strictly implement the law. 

Nevertheless, sex determination continued clandestinely – as is reflected in a further anti-girl child skew in the child sex ratio from that year. In 2003, the PNDT Act was amended and renamed as the Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994.
Has it helped? Having read so far, cynical readers would imagine that it has not. And they would be right. Families routinely take pregnant women for “check-ups” which are actually sonographies; women are regularly either coerced and forced into abortion, or are given an anasethetic and upon waking find that their pregnancy has been terminated. All this naturally takes an awful toll on their physical and mental health.

Women who try to escape this nightmare don’t have it easy. The law may be on their side in letter, but the enforcers of the law are more often than not on the side of the perpetrators. 

The combination of greed, social attitudes and practices, family pressure, lack of political will and lacunae in the law enforcement setup leads to heavy under-reporting of the crime, and a low conviction rate. In some cases, even when doctors are convicted, they are not imprisoned but released after paying a fine. 
When millions are killed in a relatively short span of time, it is termed genocide. India’s 30 million missing girls are not evoking the same kind of outrage, however, although female foeticide actually meets four out of five criteria to be termed genocide. In the case of female foeticide, the killing has happened before the girls came into this world. The killing has happened over several decades. But the fact remains that the killing has happened, and continues to happen. For this to change, attitudes towards women and girls must undergo a very fundamental transformation on a large scale.

Sitting targets in the womb(SATYAMEV JAYATE)

In the 1970s, technology enabled the killing to be done one step before birth. It became possible to determine the gender of the unborn baby at a stage when abortion was possible, and legal. Originally conceived as a government solution for terminating foetuses with severe medical problems, pre-natal testing also revealed the gender of the foetus. Parents, eager to avoid having a girl child, decided to terminate female foetuses. Doctors, seeing a lucrative business ahead, offered sex determination tests and abortions to willing parents. For a country struggling with a population explosion, this seemed like an easy answer to keeping the numbers down. The thinking was that in the desire for a male child, parents continue to have girl children till such time as a boy was not born. Terminating the pregnancy of a girl foetus would eliminate this aspect, it was felt. 

Activists and authorities soon realised that what was happening was a systematic elimination of girls, and warnings began to be sounded about its dire consequences. After a partial ban in 1976, government hospitals and clinics no longer offered pre-natal testing, but the monster had been unleashed. The private sector had, literally, scented blood. The lure of money overrode any inhibitions some unscrupulous doctors may have had.
Sex determination became even easier with the introduction of ultrasound technology in [the early 1990s]. This did away with the painful practice of amniocentesis and other dangerous methods. Sonography became a corner-shop service, offered in mobile vans and often as a “package” along with the subsequent abortion.

In the 1980s the drive against female foeticide and sex determination techniques gained strength. In 1982 the Centre for Women’s Development Studies (CWDS) launched the first campaign, in response to a pre-natal diagnostic clinic which was openly advertising its services, terming daughters as liabilities to the family and a threat to the nation, and encouraging expectant parents to rid themselves of the “danger”. More campaigns came up in different parts of the country, the move for an all-India ban on sex determination tests gained momentum, and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Tests (Regulation and Prohibition of Misuse) Act, 1994 (called the PNDT Act) came into force in January 1996.

A world without women – the grim reality(SATYAMEV JAYATE)

A dearth of women due to female foeticide will result in them being traded like commodities. The horrible truth is that this is already happening.
When such pains are taken to produce only male children, what happens to those children when they grow up? A conversation with a group of young men from Haryana reveals the truth. They are all over 30, all unmarried, and are unable to find life partners because there simply are no girls. 
The situation is so dire that in the next 10 years, there will be 2 crore men who will be unable to find spouses. The end result is a marriage bazaar where women will be bartered and traded, and crimes against women will only grow and become more heinous. Does this sound like fiction?
Social worker Virendra Vidrohi from Alwar, Rajasthan, tells the story of his region’s “brides” – some 15,000 women who have been brought from places such as Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh because the men of Alwar district cannot find women in their own area. These women, who are from poor families, have been purchased, and Virendra ji says that 15,000 is not even an alarmingly large number as there are 1,900 villages and towns where this practice is carried out.

Anandbala Todarmal from Bhilwara adds that in her community of Jains too, the shortage of women due to female foeticide has resulted in brides being procured from other states. 

Karminder Kaur, who is a state protection officer from Haryana, highlights that the buying of women has led to a further degradation in their status and condition. Far from being treated like brides, they become commodities and are used by all the men in the household. Moreover, they cannot protest as they are told they will be thrown out and other women will be bought in their place. The other problem is that women from Haryana itself are extremely unsafe. Any woman who goes out of doors – be it for studies or to the workplace – faces the possibility of assault, kidnapping and rape from the men of Haryana. 
In such a grim scenario, it comes as a ray of hope that there are actually people who have managed to change the situation.

The social conspiracy(Aamir Khan, Satyamev Jayate)

Why is there no widespread outrage against female foeticide? Society, the law and the official machinery turn a blind eye and those who try to find a solution are harassed and persecuted.
Dr Puneet Bedi, a well-known gynaecologist, explains how female foeticide began to happen in the 1970s when the rise in population was seen as the root cause of the nation’s problems, and various efforts were on to curb the population explosion. The issue began in a government institution, with a paper published by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, which postulated that people, in the desire for a male child, were producing daughters until they got a son, almost as if the girls were a by-product in the manufacture of the boy child. The proposal was that if girls could be eliminated before birth, people would have less children and this would be one solution to the population problem. Hence sex determination tests were offered in major hospitals, with government encouragement. When some activists raised an objection, the government stopped the facility being offered in public hospitals. But by then the damage had been done. People had come to know that pre-natal sex determination could be done, and the technicians and doctors who had been trained for this started offering it in the private sector to meet the demand. Initially amniocentesis was carried out to determine the gender of the foetus, but this was expensive and involved a high level of risk. When ultrasound technology came in, about 1990, it was a gold mine for doctors as testing became easier and faster. It ended up being a Rs 2,000-3,000 crore industry.
What is the solution for this? Dr Bedi suggests that some prominent doctors should immediately be made examples of, and punished so as to act as a deterrent. This has been done in Korea where in the ’90s, some selected prominent doctors were imprisoned and had their licences cancelled for female foeticide. This resulted in the practice being stopped, and eventually in correction of the sex ratio. In India there are an estimated 50,000 doctors involved in this practice, and it may be noted that there are a total of some 70,000 to 80,000 gynaecologists in all of India. But the Indian Medical Council has not cancelled the licence of even one doctor for female foeticide so far. In a way this is condoning the killing, and sending the message that female foeticide is not considered a crime.
Dr Rajendra Shukla, the advocate who represented Amisha Yagnik, says that during the bail hearing for Amisha’s husband and in-laws, the judge remarked in the open court that there was nothing wrong in desiring a male child, that everyone wants their bloodline to be continued. Shuklaji also said the judge pulled up the police officer who conducted the case, for being hasty in making the arrests.
Clearly, the crime is not taken seriously at all. Two journalists from Rajasthan tried to bring the issue into the open and expose the nexus behind it. Meena Sharma and Shripal Shaktawat carried out a sting operation on 140 doctors in 36 cities, revealing that female foeticide is available at the drop of a hat and on payment of package amounts, in an extremely organised way. But the result is that the exposed doctors are still practising, some have been promoted, and the journalists themselves have been facing continuous and severe harassment as well as the difficulty of travelling from place to place for the cases in different courts.
Aamir Khan says that he is initiating a campaign to send a letter to the Chief Minister of Rajasthan asking for a fast-track court to collate and handle all the cases against Meena Sharma and Shripal Shaktawat. He invites people to join him in the campaign.

Aamir Khan against Female Foeticide(IN SATAYAMEV JAYATE)

Aamir Khan against Female Foeticide(IN SATAYAMEV JAYATE)
A problem for all sections of society
Anywhere between three and five crore girls have been killed before even seeing the light of life. Contrary to popular belief, this happens among urban, educated sections as much as, if not more than, in rural areas.
Census figures show that in the year 2011, for every 1000 boys there were only 914 girls.
Video testimony from people all over India show that people think female foeticide is predominantly a rural phenomenon, but in reality it is practised more widely in urban India.
The story of Dr Mitu Khurana, is an example of the approach towards daughters in middle class, educated India. Mitu alleges that when she refused to undergo a sonography, she was tricked into one in the guise of a kidney test. and was then pressurised to abort the twin girls she was carrying.
The testimony of Rambabu Bhatt shows that as per his research, people from all walks of life – from IAS officers to health department officials – condone female foeticide. Doctors and clinics offer package deals of sonography combined with abortion. At the other end of the spectrum, as Dr Shaili Agarwal explains, are Adivasi people who, she has found, don’t want to know the gender of the gestating child. They are happy with their children, of whichever gender.
Bharati, a vegetable vendor who lives in Ahmedabad is a young mother who has a daughter. She wanted a girl, while her husband wanted a boy, but she says that he is now happy with their daughter. She says she is aware of sex determination tests and foeticide, but says that she would “never commit such a sin”.

Why girls in India are being killed

Traditions and cultural beliefs in India are resulting in the slaughter of girls, often before they’re even born. In the past 20 years, ten million female foetuses have been aborted. Helen Roberts investigates why a nation doesn’t want daughters. Clutching husband Rajesh*’s hand, 20-year-old Nilima* stares at a monitor displaying grainy black and white swirls. She’s 20 weeks pregnant and they’re in a small clinic in Jaipur, the capital of the western Indian state of Rajasthan, about to see an image of their unborn baby for the first time.
Her husband has his eyes glued to the monitor as the doctor examines the foetus’ heart and vital details to check it’s growth and health. But there’s one thing Rajesh, a businessman, wants to know more than anything else – the sex of their child.
When the scan is over, the doctor leads Rajesh and Nilima to his office where he gives them the news – their unborn baby is a girl. The disappointment on both the parents’ faces is evident. While Nilima’s eyes well up because she knows what her fate and that of her unborn child will be, Rajesh quietly takes the doctor to a corner of his office.
Seeing both of them speak in hushed tones, Nilima knows what is being discussed: an abortion. She is reluctant to undergo one, but she knows she will be forced to by her husband and his parents.

Apni Ki Janen

Abortions Of Female Fetuses Creating Widening Gender Imbalance In India

C directs quick and tough action against female foeticide

New Delhi: The Supreme Court on Monday directed the Centre and state governments to take quick and tough action against people indulging in female foeticide and passed a slew of directions for effective implementation of PNDT Act that prohibits pre-natal sex determination.

The apex court directed the governments to map all ultra-sonography clinics within three months and asked the lower courts to dispose all cases for violation of the Act within a period of six months to bring the accused to book.

"Steps should be taken by the state government and the authorities under the Act for mapping of all registered and unregistered ultra-sonography clinics, in three months time," a bench of justices K S Radhakrishnan and Dipak Misra said.

"The various courts in this country should take steps to dispose of all pending cases under the Act, within a period of six months," it said.

The bench also said that special cell be constituted by the state governments and the Union Territories to monitor the progress of various cases pending in the courts under the Act and take steps for their early disposal.

It said that more vigil and attention by the authorities is required in view of "mushrooming" of various sonography centres, genetic clinics, genetic counselling centres, genetic laboratories, ultrasonic clinics and imaging centres in almost all parts of the country.

The court passed the order on a PIL by NGO Voluntary Health Association of Punjab pleading it to interfere in the matter in view of decreasing number of girls/boys ratio in the country.

The average count of girl child (0-6 years) in the country has dropped to 914 per 1000 boys as per the Census 2011 which was earlier 927 in the 2001 Census.

Indian Court Upholds Ban on Pre-natal Sex Determination Test Read more: Indian Court Upholds Ban on

They said they wanted to ensure that she did not deliver a female child again, they had two already.

The couple, Vijay and Kirti Sharma, based in the commercial metropolis Mumbai, challenged the validity of the Pre Conception and Pre Natal Diagnostic Tests Act (PCPNDT) Act, a 2001 Indian legislation which bans sex determination.

Kirti Sharma had pleaded with the judge that she must be allowed to bear a male child since social stigma was attached to the birth of a girl child in the country.

However, the court ruled that if sex determination test was not banned "it would result in an imbalance in the sex ratio and the girl child would always remain unwanted." Allowing the petitioner's plea would amount to "an insult to womanhood," the order said. Sex selection tests also offended the dignity of women and undermined their importance, the court stressed.

The order has brought cheer to progressive activists who have been demanding strict implementation of the provisions of the PCPNDT Act. Though the legislation was enacted in 2001, there had been instances of violations in quite a few Indian States and a few doctors too were arrested for conducting gender tests.

The need for the implementing the ban is crucial considering the alarming female sex ratio in some north Indian States like Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. Studies had earlier shown that in Himachal Prudish there were only 896 girls against 1,000 boys in the age group of 0 to 6 years. In Punjab there were only 874 females for 1,000 men.

Also, the introduction of a United States patented sex determination kit called 'Baby Gender Mentor Home DNA Gender Testing Kit' have raised fears about back-door fetus determination tests. The kit, priced at $275 was sold online on the website and was popularly known as 'Jantar Mantar' in rural Punjab. It had a built-in-equipment for collecting and sending a finger-prick blood sample to a Massachusetts laboratory from where confidential results were sent via e-mail within 48 hours.

The Indian Medical Association has raised concerns that such kits could lead to mass abortions of the female foetus, which would further skew the sex ratio.

Meanwhile, the National Commission for Women has suggested proper monitoring of the situation and severe punishment for those performing sex determination tests.

Punishment of kin too in sex test cases: Minister

PUNE: State health minister Suresh Shetty on Thursday said that besides erring doctors, family members of the pregnant woman who force her to undergo illegal sex determination test, should also be punished for violating the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prevention of Sex Determination) (PCPNDT) Act.
Shetty was addressing the state supervisory board meeting held in Mumbai on Thursday to review the implementation of the PCPNDT Act. "Our aim is to send a strong message to society. Whoever is party to violating the Act should be taken to task. Section 24 of the PCPNDT Act clearly says that if a woman is compelled by her husband or a family member, then they are liable for punishment, which can be imprisonment for three years or fine up to Rs 50,000," Shetty said.
Minister of state for health Fauzia Khan said if a pregnant woman comes forward to complain against her family that she is being forced to undergo illegal sex determination test, she should be given a cash prize of Rs 25,000 as is given to people who pass on information about doctors doing sex determination test.
Rajya Sabha MP Vandana Chavan, a member of the state supervisory board on the PCPNDT Act, said, "Awareness level vis-a-vis the Act has improved tremendously. That's why more and more cases are coming into light."
Chavan spoke about finding out reasons for acquittals in the cases filed against of doctors who violated the PCPNDT Act. "Reasons of acquittals should also be investigated. The knowledge will equip authorities to file strong cases," Chavan said.

Appeal to the CM of West Bengal

Kya aap jante hai...

Dr. H.K Chanda( Deputy Director Health, Admn.) who wants stringent action must be taken on this Case

Dr. ADITI KISHORE SARKAR( Addl. Director of Health) is not interested to Highlight this Episode

MEGACITY NURSING HOME, Jessore Road, Brasat(Govt. Blacklisted USG UNIT)

NEOTIAS MEDIPLUS at Park Street( Govt. Blacklisted USG unit)

SHREE XRAY & SCAN CENTER( Beside Barasat Hospital & at Haritala Bazar) Blacklisted both USG Units

NOVA IVI, Near Park Circus 4 No. Bridge(Behind Chandrani Nissan Showroom)Govt. Blacklisted USG Unit

Ultra Care, Jessore Road, Barasat(Govt. Filed case against this USG CLINIC)

Winning an uphill task




Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 is anfederal legislation enacted by the Parliament of India to stop female foeticides and arrest the declining sex ratio in India. The act banned prenatal sex determination.
Prenatal sex determination was banned in India in 1994, under the Pre-conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act. The act aims to preventsex-selective abortion, which, according to the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, "has its roots in India’s long history of strong patriarchal influence in all spheres of life".





Female Foeticide

Female foeticide is the act of aborting a foetus because it is female. This is a major social problem in India and has cultural connections with the dowry system that is ingrained in Indian culture, despite the fact that it has been prohibited by law since 1961. See Dowry law in India. In India a strong preference for sons over daughters exists, unlike in Western cultures. People realise smaller family sizes with relatively greater number of sons through the use of medical technologies. Pregnancies are planned by resorting to 'differential contraception' — contraception is used based on the number of surviving sons irrespective of family size. Following conception, foetal sex is determined by prenatal diagnostic techniques after which female foetuses are aborted.Foetal sex determination and sex-selective abortion by medical professionals has grown into a INR1,000 crore industry (US$244 million).